Louis Raymond experiments in his own gardens like

a mad scientist, searching out plants that most people have

never seen before & figuring out how to make them perform.- The Boston Globe

…Louis Raymond ensures that trees can grow in Brooklyn…

or just about any other place where concrete consumes

the dirt and skyscrapers shield the sunshine.- USA Today


NEW Trips to Take!

Myrtle's easy when the conditions are right.


NEW Plants to Try!

Louis tries to capture the exact words to describe the fleeting but deep pleasures to be found in these Summer-into-Autumn incredibles.


New Gardening to Do!

Allergic to bees? You can still have an exciting garden, full of flowers and color and wildlife.


Plant Profiles

Curly-leaved willow pollard in Winter



Although the leaves of this curly willow had fallen by November, the tree looks lively all Winter.  Could the bark on these branches be any greener?  Actually, the tree has two barks.  It's "bi-barked."  Only the bark of younger growth is green.  Branches that are under a year old—all the sprouts at the top of the picture above—are pure green.


As growth ages, small patches of tan bark appear everywhere a branch had arisen.  (I pruned off the branches themselves, to help this young tree form a trunk sooner.)  In the picture below, the bark of the trunk just a foot lower has started to become patched. 




Two feet farther down the trunk, some of the tan patches have joined.  When the entire sapling was only this height—four years ago—this was the newest growth.  Over four years, the bark has changed from all green to one-third tan.




Two feet from the ground, the bark is a year or two older, and the bark has become almost entirely tan.  Brown-edged fissures are nicely formed now, too; they have a pale in-fill.




As the trunk ages, the tan patches will continue to enlarge and cover more of the trunk's surface.  In a few years, it will be completely tan.  


Because I'm growing this willow as a pollard—cutting all the growth back to the same point at the top of the trunk each Spring—above that point there will only be brand-new growth, with solid-green bark.  Solid-tan bark of the trunk below that point, solid-green bark of the new twigs above it: The contrast between the two barks will be absolute.



Here's how to grow this "bi-barked" beauty:


Latin Name

Salix babylonica 'Crispa'

Common Name

Curly-leaved Willow pollard


Salicaceae, the Willow family.

What kind of plant is it?

Deciduous tree.


Zones 5 - 8


Upright and single-trunked.  Open and sparse when young.

Rate of Growth

Very fast.

Size in ten years

Twenty feet tall and higher, and fifteen feet wide.


Unique, with the small corkscrews of the foliage (see "Grown for its foliage" below) making the tree's foliage look circular, and so nothing like the narrow pointed leaves of usual willows.  Because the foliage is so tightly curled, the bare stems between the leaves are unusually exposed, too.  The result is a tall open tree with, seemingly, round leaves.  The look is fanciful and painterly: Artistic and even unreal, in other words.

Grown for

its foliage: Typical narrow willow leaves are tightly curled, top-side out and two or three times around, making tight spirals of foliage a half-inch across.  The bottom side of the leaf is noticeably lighter, and the tight spirals reveal it far more than if the leaves were uncurled, in which case the lighter bottom sides would, by-and-large, be facing the ground.  The curled leaves also expose the bare stem between them.  The tree's unique foliage is striking even from a distance.


the smooth green bark on young stems: The bark's color is in dramatic contrast with the brown bark of older branches and the trunk itself.  Pruning the tree to remove old growth (with brown bark) and encourage new growth (with green bark) can greatly increase the intensity of the show.  See "How to Handle It" below.

Flowering season

Typical willow catkins in early Spring; April into May here in southern New England.


Full sun when possible; accepts part shade but is less vigorous.  As is typical for shrub- and tree-sized willows that have green leaves, this plant thrives in heavy or damp soil, and is especially happy near, by, or, seasonally and briefly, even in fresh water.

How to handle it

Because the plant grows so fast—and faster than ever in response to pruning—feel free to get out your clippers.  The pussies are showy enough, and are easy to force indoors in Winter, so cut branches—even large ones—with gusto.


This is a good plant to prune severely in Spring after the display of pussies is done.  This limits the plant's overall size and also stimulates just the long wands of new growth that will, in the coming Winter, be particularly elegant to bring indoors for forcing.  The first-year growth it encourages also has attractive green bark; the bark of older branches is brown.  Your Spring pruning can be down to low branch-stumps only inches high ("coppicing") or to branch-stumps at the top of a trunk ("pollarding").  In the latter, cut off any branches that sprout from the trunk or the trunk base.

The new growth of pollards and coppices can be eight feet and more by September.  For an even denser habit, pinch the soft tips of new growth during the season when it's only a foot or two long; side branches will grow even more quickly.  (And yes, feel free to pinch those, too.)  On the other hand, if your priority is the longest wands to cut and force the following Winter, then let the new growth grow and grow all Summer.


Willows are famously attractive to a host of diseases and bugs, some of which just disfigure the foliage but others can debilitate or even kill the entire tree.  That said, Curly-leaved Willow has been trouble-free and energetic for me.  This could be because strong-growing plants are in general more resistant to pests than struggling ones, and my Curly-leaved Willow is in just the circumstances it likes best.  Or it could just be beginner's luck:  My Curly-leaved Willow is my first ever.


Salix babylonica gives us the classic weeping willow as well as a cultivar with curly young stems with bright yellow bark, S. babylonica 'Golden Curls'. The latter benefits from the same uncompromising pruning that 'Crispa' does.


On-line and at retailers.


By cuttings.  

Native habitat

Salix babylonica is native to China, not Babylon.  The confusion arises in the Bible, where weeping trees along the Euphrates River were called willows but were, and are, poplars, Populus euphratica.  That poplars are in the willow family, and enjoy the same watery habits, only compounds the confusions.  And then in the mid-18th Century, when the true weeping willow (Salix babylonica 'Pendula') finally reached Europe via the Middle East, that just seemed to confirm the Biblical reference.

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